The common abbreviations listed below are often found in reference works consulted by Christians in their studies. You should know what they mean in order to get the most from your Bible study.

A.D. — (anno Domim), in the year of our Lord

A.S.V. — American Standard Version (1901)

A.V. — Authorized Version (same as K.J.V.)

B.C. — before Christ

B.C.E. — before the Common Era (same as B.C.)

ca. — (circa), about

C.E. — Common Era (same as A.D.)

cf. — (confer), compare or see

ch., chs. — chapter, chapters

e.g. — (example gratia), for example

f., ff. — and following (page, verse, pages, verses)

fig. — figure or figuratively

Gr. — Greek language

Heb. — Hebrew language

ibid. — (ibidem), in the same place

i.e. — that is

K.J.V. — King James Version

loc. cit. — (loco citato), in the place cited

n.d. — no date

N.E.B. – New English Bible (1970)

N.T. — New Testament

op. cit. — (opere citato), in the work cited

O.T. — Old Testament

p., pp. — page, pages

R.S.V. — Revised Standard Version (1946–1952)

R.V. — Revised Version (English 1881–1885)

Sept., or LXX — Septuagint (O.T. in Greek, translated in the third and second centuries, B.C.)

v. or ver., vs. — verse, verses

vol. — volume

yr. — year

[ ] — brackets indicate an editorial addition to quoted material

(Used by permission from the July-August 1972 issue of Impact, P. O. Box 175, Arvada, CO. 80002)

Bible and Spade 2:3 (Summer 1973)